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Pain, Suffering and Struggle; An Anonymous Rabindranath Tagore

Pain, Suffering and Struggle; An Anonymous Rabindranath Tagore

Articles IJR IJR Journal Research Papers
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 Md. Rousan Ikbal

Swami Vivekananda University.

Barrackpore, Kolkata. West Bengal. India.

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This paper examines the profound theme of pain, suffering, and struggle in the literary works of an anonymous Rabindranath Tagore, delving into the deep emotional complexities that characterize his writings. Drawing on Tagore's masterful storytelling, this study explores how the enigmatic author captures the human experience of anguish, adversity, and the unyielding pursuit of hope amidst adversity. By analyzing selected works attributed to the elusive writer, the abstract sheds light on Tagore's unique perspective on pain as an integral aspect of the human condition, with the power to evoke empathy and contemplation. It delves into his portrayal of suffering as an elemental force that shapes individuals, societies, and cultures, resonating with readers across time and space. Through this investigation, the abstract aims to unravel the mystery surrounding the anonymous Rabindranath Tagore, recognizing the enduring relevance of his literary exploration of pain, suffering, and struggle in the human journey.


Tagore, Pain, Suffering, Literature, Kolkata



Rabindranath Tagore was born in 1861 at jorasanku in Kolkata. His father’s name was Debendranath Tagore and Mother’s name was Sarada Devi.He was very tallented from his childhood. His mother passed away when he was only 14 years young. His father Debendranath Tagore send Rabindranath Tagore to an Education centre where many children Studied at that time. The Teacher was called ‘Guru’ at that time. Rabindranath Tagore use to writing poems from 8 year’s age. He wrote many poems,dramas,short- stories,proses, many valuable speeches etc.He was born at Jorasaku but he likes to stay at Santiniketan in Bolpur.His whole life was overcast by many unparallel events.He married to Kadambari Devi in the age of young.But kadambari Devi was very young than Rabindranath is not factor.This System was Continued at that time.So, it is not factor to Rabindranath Tagore and Kadambari Devi.My Research Title is “Suffering and Struggle of Rabindranath Tagore.” why have | taken this title.? In answer I want to tell that Rabindranath’s life was not a simple life.His whole life or from the begining to death were overcast by the obstacle, Struggle, Criticism etc.ln spite of that Rabindranath Tagore wrote many many dramas,stories,proses,poems for the readers of this is not simple matters.It is very very difficult matters.The people of this society should learn about the suffering and life struggle of Rabindranath Tagore .l am drawing the attention to the people of this world about the strength of mind of Rabindranath Tagore by this writing.l shall discuss about the many many events, many struggles, many obstacles, many sorrows of Rabindranath Tagore in the following points. After passing village path sala he was admitted in ST. Xavier’s college in Kolkata. After that he was send to England to study Law (Barrister). But after staying sometime he left England. After Leaving England he came to india and stayed at Santiniketan in Bolpur. He was not only a writer; he was also a great patriot. He loved his country (lndia) very much. British Kingdom was continued at that time. He disliked the English


man. He tried to recovery India from British Kingdom. Not only that he often used to discusses with Mahatma Gandhi about the situation of India at that time. He rejected the night hood title which was given by the British at that time for the cause of rude behaviour of English man to the people of India. I shall discuss many events of his struggle’s life in the following points.

 Objectives: This world is not the place of peace. Here men groan in pains and frustration. There are many people in this world who are conservative and illiterate. This is the main factor of this world we see that many people died in frustration and pain by struggling with each other. Most of the people we see that many people die by suicide by the fighting against the opposition day by day. But Rabindranath Tagore was an exceptional man. He was a hard-hearted man according to my opinion. He lost his dearest and nearest wife. He lost his nearest son. He lost his nearest daughter. Not only that his elder brother shocked to his heart. He Continued his personal life by many struggles, many fightings. In spite of that he continued his writing till death. This is the main factor. 

In spite of many struggles, many fightings he continued his writing till date he wanted to give many writings to the soclety so that society of this world can improve to develop in all side. I want to focus this matter to this society of this world. I want to show Rabindranath’s strength of mind, strength of heart to the society against the opposition I also want to inspire the people of this world by showing Rablndranath’s life. There is the objective of my research. There are many struggles in human life of this world.

 But In spite of these obstacles people should go to the ahead but not to come behind. This is my main purpose of my research.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE- There are many writers in this world who told many valuable words on him and his works. I have mentioned some writer’s speech about Rabindranath Tagore’s life and his works.



(1)  Swami adharsananda talked about the world poet Rabindranath Tagore’s the Inner seeking spirituality of India infused all of Tagore writing he wrote in many generes of the deep religious milieu of Hinduism. The values and core believe of the Hindu seriptures permitted his work. 

(2)   Swami adarshananda again talked about Rabindranath’s, life Rabindranath Tagore’s philosophical and spiritual thoughts. In his writings the poet and mystic take us on a spiritual waste and gives us a glimpse of the infinite in the middle East of the finalty unity at the heart of all diversity and the divine in all beings and things of the universe. 

(3)  Gandhi called to Rabindranath Tagore to great sentinel 

(4)   U. S S.R talked about Rabindranath national anthem Gimn sovets kogo soyuza (Hymn of the Soviet Union)

(5)   Rabindranath Tagore was also renowned as Gurudev by Gandhiji

(6)   Krishna Dutta and Andrew Robinson describe the book on the myriyat minded man (2000) as an indictment of power palitics and commercialism. 

(7)  The royal artistic society told to Rabindranath Tagore “” The Bard of Bengal””. 

(8)  Krishna Dutta and Andrew Rabinson told to Rabindranath Tagore “” Glimpses of Bengal””.


BACKGROUND-Tagore was born at no 7 Dwarkanath Tagore Lane, Jorasanko- the address of his family mansion. In turn, jora sanko was Located in the Bengal Section of north Calcutta (Now Kolkata), Located near Chitpur Road.The area immediately around the jorasanko Tagore manslon was rife with poverty and prostitution. He was the son of Debendranath Tagore and Sarada Devi [1830- 1875). Debendranath Tagore had formulated the Brahmo faith propagated by his friend, the reformer Raja Ram Mohan Roy. Debendranath became the Central figure in Brahmo society after Roy’s death, who was addresscd out of respect by followers as maharishi. He continued to lead the Adi Brahmo Samaj until he died. Women he married into Tagore’s clan were generally from the villages of East Bengal (now Bangladesh).

 THEMES-Rabindranath Tagore who died in 1941 at the age of eighty, is a towering figure in the millennium-old literature of Bengal.Anyone who becomes familiar with his large and flourishing tradition will be Impressed by the power of Tagore’s presence in Bangladesh and In India.His poetry as well as his novels, short stories and essays are very widely read, and the songs he composed reverberate around the eastern part of India and through out Bangladesh.


               In contrast, in the rest of the world,especially In Europe and America, the excitement that Tagore’s writings created in the early years of the Twentieth Century has Largely vanished.The enthusiasm with which his work was once greeted was quite remarkable.Getanjali, a Selection of his poetry for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1913,was published In English translation in London in march of that year,and had been reprinted ten times by November,when the award was anaunced.But he is not much read now In the west, and already by 1937,Graham Greene was able to say: “As for Rabindranath Tagore,l cannot believe that any- one but Mr. Yeats can still take his poems very seriously. The contrast between Tagore’s commanding presence in Bengal literature and culture, and his near-total eclipse in the rest of the world, is perhaps lees interesting than the distinction between the view of Tagore as a deeply relevant and many-sided contemporary thinker in Bangladesh and India, and his image in the west as repitative and remote Spiritualist.Graham Greene had, in fact, gone on to explain that he associated Tagore “with what Chesterton calls The bright pebbly eyes' of the         



Theosophists”. Certainly, all of mysticism played some part in the “selling” of Rabindranath Tagore to west by yeats, Ezra pound, and his other early champions. Even Anna Akhmatove, one of Tagore’s Few later admirers (who translated his poems into Russian in the mid-1960s), talks of ‘that mighty flow of poetry which takes its strength from Hinduism as from the Ganges, and is called Rabindranath Tagore”. 

TITLE-Rabindranath Tagore’s theatrical imagination blended with his political convictions, the ideals of democracy and the nature of ideals governance, was penned in the from of the play ‘Raja’ as early as November 10, 1910.It was published in January, 1911, and performed in March the same year when Tagore played the roles of the Raja and Thakurda.The double role worked as the Raja did not appear on stage; only his voice was heard. 

                Tagore wrote an English version of this play titled ‘The king of Dark Chamber’ (published in 1914), which was staged in England, lreland and other places In Europe.He also re-wrote a shorter version of ‘Raja’ and called it ‘Arup Ratan’. 

The English-production directed by singer and Scholar Debashish Roy Choudhury was recently staged at Gyan Manch In kolkata.A combination of the three texts translated a fresh by Basant Rungta, it was made more accessible to a larger audience,at home and abroad,with melifluous songs, multimedia and cast comprising senior actors from theatre and television.British poet and Tagore Scholar William Radice played the Raja.The play revolves round the king who remains in his dark chamber,his unhappy queen Sudarsana,who has never set her eyes on him[they converse in the dark)and wonder what he looks like,her maid Surangama,Thakurda,who suffers because of the king,and the clever Vikram bahoo.Surangama’s life Is ruined in a gambling ring run by her father.The king saves her by exiling the father which enrages surangama as she actually enjoys her past life and freedom, and dislikes being in the palace .Gradually realization dawns on her and she begins to adore the king.

 This Seminal play runs on two parallel themes, good governance in 1910 and talk of democracy which is quite relevant in the present time, and the philosophy of life itself.

 This Seminal play runs on two parallel themes, good governance in 1910 and talk of democracy which is quite relevant in the present time, and the philosophy of life itself. 


This paper explores Tagore’s engagement with the wave of emancipation of woman in the nineteenth century Bengal. Tagore’s position was not akin to that of an extremist. Rather, he opted for a mid-way while three of Tagore’s female protagonists Mrinmaye, Uma and Mrinal-from the conclusion (samapti), Exercise – Book (Khata) and The Wife’s Lettet (streer patra) to show how their repeated individual Scripting are mercilessly thwarted by social interventions. 

The novels of Tagore have not been paid due attention as his poetry has been but his novels are remarkable from every point of view. His claim in Bengali fiction is most predominant and now in free India they are being read and revived with great gusto. Had Rabindranath Tagore written nothing but novels, he would still be the most predominant figures in the literary history of Bengal and English literature.

 Tagore always considers women as social agents to transform Society. The women in his poems Challenge the male dominated society. “Womanis imaged as a human being in the process of full humanization and man finds in his image the creative principal of growth”. According to Tagore, the human world is also the woman’s world. He had in mind the Sufferings of the young brides in the Joint families of Bengal. Tagore never wanted woman to wast their talents, time and energy in the endless tedium of cooking and washing. Woman Should extend their rediance beyoung the boundaries of the family. He had a great concern for the women employed in cheap labour. 

Much has been said about the way Tagore views his women in his poems, essays, novels and drama. Yet it is the dance dramas of Tagore, a genre quite unique in his time and milieu, which portray the radical nature of Tagore’s conception of women and the radical nature of Tagore’s conception of women and the naturation of their self hood. The dance dramas illustrate Tagore’s bold and perceptive experimentation with various literary forms and techniques and 


the radical nature of his ideo logical orientation. Among the dance dramas of Tagore, chandalika has a special place as it forgrounds the theme of female desire İs an untouchable girl, a tabooed subject in his times, indeed even now in Bengali writings. This paper tries to show how Tagore uses the nuances of the dance form to show cause the intersections of caste, class and gender as well as the evolution of Selfhood in prakriti, the chandal girls. Rabindranath Tagore’s plays like chitra Karana, and Kunti and Gandhari's praye arc being inspired from Mahabharat. In Chitra, transformation of Arjum comes from physical to Spiritual life. Chitrangadha has got the supernatural power with that she gets attraction of Arjun.and then, when beauty of chitra decrease, arjum negates Chitra, later Arjun comes back to the sense. In karna and Kunti both the characters are thinking for their salvage at the last hour of the war from its wreckage. In Gandhari’s prayer, Gandhari knows the truth of Duryodhana's bad things, whereas his father Dritarashtra Supported him. Gandhari knew that the Duryodhana will be doomed for his bad thing. 


SUMMARISING- Rabindranath Tagore is the well-known philosopher, educationist, musician, stoty writer, humanist, novelist, social reformer, patriot who wrote the national anthem of the nation. Though he ls a genious in many fields of intellect, his dramatic genre is not fully explored.the Study under taken is an honest and humble attempt to discover him as a well-versed playwright. The play wright himself translated form the Bengali orignals. Such are the following plays Sanyasi or The

 Ascetic, Malini, sacrifice, the king and the queen, Kacha and Devyako, the mother’s prayer, Karna and Kunti, ama and Vinayaka, Somaka and Ritika, Chitra, Autumn Festival, the water fall or Mukta dhara, natir puja and Chandalika. Tagore's plays are theme oriented and symbolical. His themes are different and the treatment is unique and well suited to the them. He was very much concerned with women's education’s educational Institutions have almost always been co-educational and the number of female students is conspicuously large at Santi Niketan. He wanted woman and men to be offered similar theoretical courses with separate practical Courses for women, since their roles in life differed from those of men.

 Rabindranath Tagore has described the journey of his woman characters from ignorance to Knowledge. Self- consciousness in all the Characters play vital role in their development. As far as chitra had no consciousness as woman, she was Just the princess of the land. when she sees Arjunas realizes for the time her woman hood.

 Rabindranath Tagore is an exceptional stature in the histoty of Indian drama in English.He was a man of the classics of Indian drama and was, at the same time, alive to the Europeon dramatic tradition. His career as a dramatist may be divided into three periods, namely-pre-Gitanjali period, and post- Gitanjali period. During the pre-

Gitanjali period, and post-Gitanjali period. During the pre - Gitanjali period he wrote sacrifice, King and Queen, Malinl and Balmiki - pratibha. During the Gitanjali period appeared Autumn festival, The castle of conservatism, the king of the Dark Chamber and the post office. During the post -GItanjali period he wrote the cycle of spring, the free current tent and the red oleanders. The range and variety of his drama is astounding. Many of his themes


 are borrowed from indian mythology. Buddhist legends and other classical resources without any creative reticence or scruple.

 STRUCTURING-Tagore's characters are never artificial creatures.They are ordinary men and women,and children and babies whom he met In his life in the estate.Till that time ordinary men and women had no entry in Bengali literature.There were none before or after him,who portrayed these Categories of characters with so much insight and Sympathy.His stories show a wide canvas reality through which one can have a glimpse of the widest sections of Society like peasants.petty officials, poor workers,inteligentsia living in city and villages,inmpoverished land lords.Brahmin, priests,pitty traders and so on.Through these characters Tagore shows life as it flows in the Bengali Society.The Characters have their own personalities. At the same time, they are typical of the 19th century Bengal.The tragic conditions of women in all roles of life, wife, mother, daughter, sister is drawn through a number of characters in his stories. The Spineless intelligentsia of a Bengal during Tagore's days makes central Characters In some of his stories. The narrator in many of his stories is shallow, jaunty, self-regarding person, who is changed. 

Tagore's reputation far exceeded the boundary of the literary- Cultural world. He was in the company of the likes of Russeli, Einstein, Mussolini and Gandhi, and they all held him in the highest esteem. 

Tagore is the first modern Indian writer who brought his women Out of the kitchen and bed room into the parlour where they argue with men and exchange ideas while still remaining very feminine. He was a poet in the tradition Indian sense of the word, Kavi, a seer, an intermediary between the human and the divine. His genius enriched whatever it touched. 


Tagore was 14 when his mother Sarada Davi, passed away. Later in life he had to encounter the death of many loved ones, one after another. He takes in and leaves out according to his taste. He makes many a big thing small and small thing big. He has no compunction in putting in to the back ground that which was to the fore, or bringing to the front that which was behind. In short, he is painting pictures, and not writing history Tagore who was also known as 'Gurudev', was born on 7th. May 1861 in jorasanko Thakur Bari the ancestral home of the Tagore's in Kolkata which was then known  as Calcutta and was the capital of British India. As a child, he was left in the care of cooks and maids, except on Sunday morning when his mother would make him take a bath with the homemaid fairness scrubs.

 Even though he grew up in large family, along side his Siblings and many cousins, he would spend most of his time alone. which made him a loner and an Introvert.However, this gave his mind a fair chance to fly the wings of his imaginatlon. This also led him to notice the minute details of nature which inspired him to turn to poetry. As he recalls his frist poem was -"Brishti pode, Paa ta node."(The rain patters, the leaf quivers) Tagore was 14 when his mother, sharada Devi passed away. Later in life he had to encounter the death of many one loved one, one after another his sister-in-law kadambari Devi, who was a dear friend and a significant influence, his wife Mrinalini Devi, his daughter Madhuri Lata, and Renuka and his son Samindranath. 

Delimitation -In spite of their educatlon and a Stalwart father, Rabindranath’s tagore daughters were married young and faced Severe gender blas. Author Arun Chakraborty unravels their story. As a Bengal Child growing up In Delhi, Author Aruna Chakra varti (now 77) would be told stories of the Tagore household. But they would mostly revolve around the Nobel-prize-winning poet and author Rabindranath Tagore, or of Satyendra Nath Tagore, the first Indian to join the Indian Civil Services (ICS). Chakraborty became curious about the women in the house hold. "I thought someone should research the contribution of the Tagore women. They would have also impacted the lives of people, "she says in 2013 she wrote jorasanko, a Semi fictional novel that revolved around the Tagore family during the Bengal Renaissance (a cultural movernent from the 19th to early 20th century that ushered modern thinking) 

The book highlighted the role played by Hiranandani Tagore (wife of Satyendra Nath) in breaking away from the anta mahal (women's quarter) to accompany her husband on his postings, opting for a nuclear household, and teaching Bengali women to wear a Paris style sari with a Jacket and chemise (as blouse and petticoat). other characters that stand out one of Kadambari Devi (wife of Jyotindranath Tagore) who helped Rabindranath's his poetic-skills and Rabindianath's wife, Mrinalini, who sold her jewellery to fund vishva Bharati University in Santiniketan. 

Chakravarti is now releasing a sequel to the book. Titled Daughters of jorasanko, it revolves around Tagore's daughters, nieces, and muses. The book focusses on the professional achievements of the Bengali Bard between 1902 and 1941 when he won the Nobel prize for Literature, and Set up vishva Bharati University-interspersed with personal tragedies during that span. Despite being a modern thinker, Tagore had his daughters Renuka, Madhuri Lata and Meera married before they turned 15. Their Subsequent unhappiness would make Tagore regret this decision for the rest of his life. 

           Rational-The poet also witnessed a number of deaths in his immediate family. His wife passed away at the age of 25, he lost his young son shami to cholera and daughter Ranuka to consumption so central to the book one his muses Ranu Adhikari, a young girl of 12, who prompted him to write love poems and Victoria 0 cameo a 35 -year-old Argentine writer who inspired him, and looked after him when he was in Argentina.

Taught to read and write Bengali and English, the Tagore women (daughters and daughter-in-laws) were encouraged to write for the family Journals Bharati and Baalok (for children). "Since it was a family Journal, the women could not really speak against anyone, or fully express themselves. But one can read between the lines to understand aspects to their personality. For instance, Kadambari devi was prone to self-daubt. So, despite having a poetic sensibility, she never wrote for the Journals."

 Conclusion -The great piece of literature of the ninetieth century, the Conclusion is more than just a love story between a young man and young woman. within its words lie lessons of maturing and growing up as a woman which are pretty relevant to today surprisingly


REFERENCE LIST (Alphabetically)

A Bandhopadhaya, S,2013-Rabindranath tagore, The Indian Nation and is outcast, Harvard Asia Quarterly, vol 15, no1 

B. Chakraborty, M1990-The Gandhian dimension of Educatlon, Delhi, Daya Publishing House 

C. David 1979-The-Brahmo samaj and the shaping of the Modern Indian mind. D.Das Gupta, u(ed)2006-Rabindranath Tagore My life is my words, New Delhi, Viking. 

E. Kopf-1979-The Brahmo samaj and the Shaping of the Madern Indian mind F. Mokhopadhya-Priyasha-Rabindranath Tagore and the national Movement in Indian.

 G. Nitish-History of the Bengali Speaking People-2001/2002

 H. Ramtanu Lahiri-0 Tat kalin Bangasomaj in Bengali 1903/2002

 I. Sukanta Choudhury-Deb, Chitra, jorasanko, and the Thakkar Family, in Calcutta, The Living City, vol-1

 J. Dr. S Radha Krishnan-Rabindranath Tagore-A Century Volume 1861/1961

 K. Sen Gupta-History of The Bengali-Speaking People 2001/2002

 L. Sastri-O-Tatkalin Bango Samaj in Bengali-1903/2001 

M. Sivanath O Tatkalin Bango Samaj in Bengali-1903/2001 

N. Sabyasachi Bhattacharya-Mahatma and the poet,1997, Delhi


 l am very glad and thank full to my supervisor Dr. Debobrato Danda  He has helped me to collect Data information from various information from different sources to compose this synopsis in details. 










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